Mongolia has one of Asia's largest freshwater lakes - Hovsgol and river system. 75.1 percent of territory - pasture land and 8.0 percent - forest. Vegetation cover - 2260 species of vascular plants united in 596 genera and 104 families. Fauna - 127 species of mammals, 360 species of birds and 70 species of fishes.
Vast semi-desert and desert plains, mountains in west and south-west, Gobi Desert in south-east. Eighty per cent of the entire area is about 1,000 meters above sea level. Mongolia claims the most of the Mongol Altai Mountains, the Great Lakes' Depression, mountains surrounding Lake Khuvsgul, the Khangai mountain range, the Orkhon-Selenge river basin, Khentii Mountain, the Dornod Steppe and Great Khyangan Mountains eastwards. The Mongol Altai Mountains in the west runs for 600-650km, with thin hills, hollows and precipitous crags of over 4,000 meters. The Khuiten peak of Mt. Altai Tavan Bogd is the highest point in the country, at 4,374 meters. There are glaciers in the heights of the Mongol Altai, and the humps and hollows of the ice-age period remain in Khuvsgul, Khangai, Khentii and Altai mountains. Rivers of the Tes basin and the River Delger of the Selenge basin flow from there westward and eastward. This zone was called 1905 splitting zone since a strong earthquake in 1905. A wide range of the Khangai Mountains lies in the center of Mongolia. The Bulnai, Tarvagatai and Buren Mountain range are continuous from the Khangai range; the latter being in the splitting zone. The highest peak of the Khangai range is Mt. Otgontenger in the western portion of the range, at 4,021 meters, with a small glacier on top.